Examines the anthropological, sociological, historical, economic, and scientific theories of race and racism in the modem era. Delves into the historic origins of ideas of race and racism and explores their social and scientific consequences. Includes biographies of significant theorists, as well as political and social leaders.
The Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America contains 175 essays on specific minority and ethnic groups in the U.S., with an emphasis on culture (religions, holidays, customs, language) in addition to information on historical background and settlement patterns. The Encyclopedia also covers ethnoreligious groups such as Jews, Chaldeans and Amish. Each essay has been completely updated and contains a listing of organizations and research centers; names addresses and contact information for periodicals, radio and television stations; and a list of suggestions for further reading. Also featured are more than 350 photographs and illustrations, sources for further study and a general annotated bibliography.
This book explains how race, once a differentiating factor, became a major basis for stratification in America that pervaded scientific thought, religious doctrine, governmental policy, and the patterned actions of decision-makers in all sectors of social life. Racism in America: A Reference Handbook diverges from the typical focus of accounts of racism on interpersonal prejudice and discrimination to situate racism within structural processes to demonstrate the systematic nature of racial discrimination. Racial progress, though notable, has largely addressed symptoms of the racialized social system rather than tackling the ways in which the system is inherently patterned to benefit whites. This book provides evidence that racial discrimination is not an occasional decision made by individuals. The book provides readers with a background and history of race in America; a thorough treatment of the problems, controversies, and solutions related to race; a perspectives section including essays from experts in a variety of related fields; profiles of important people and organizations; and a section dedicated to data and documents. Its organizational strategy benefits the reader, first explaining core concepts and providing context for racism in America before moving into more specific applications in the work of relevant experts and providing directions for further study.
A breathtaking achievement, this Concise Companion is a suitable crown to the astonishing production in African American literature and criticism that has swept over American literary studies in the last two decades. It offers an enormous range of writers-from Sojourner Truth to FrederickDouglass, from Zora Neale Hurston to Ralph Ellison, and from Toni Morrison to August Wilson. It contains entries on major works (including synopses of novels), such as Harriet Jacobs's Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Richard Wright's Native Son, and Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun.It also incorporates information on literary characters such as Bigger Thomas, Coffin Ed Johnson, Kunta Kinte, Sula Peace, as well as on character types such as Aunt Jemima, Brer Rabbit, John Henry, Stackolee, and the trickster. Icons of black culture are addressed, including vivid details about thelives of Muhammad Ali, John Coltrane, Marcus Garvey, Jackie Robinson, John Brown, and Harriet Tubman.Here, too, are general articles on poetry, fiction, and drama; on autobiography, slave narratives, Sunday School literature, and oratory; as well as on a wide spectrum of related topics. Compact yet thorough, this handy volume gathers works from a vast array of sources--from the black periodicalpress to women's clubs--making it one of the most substantial guides available on the growing, exciting world of African American literature.