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Scholarly Journal Articles: Structure and Function


In the Results section, the authors present the major findings of their study, both in the text of the article, and in various tables, charts and graphics. Since graphics may contain information not explicitly stated in the text of the article, they need to be studied carefully for a complete understanding of the results. This section also generally includes a detailed breakdown of the demographics of the subjects studied (age, sex, etc.,)

 In the Warren, et al., study, how many patients were initially screened for inclusion in the study? Of these, how many ultimately met the diagnostic criteria for cirrhosis?


In the Discussion section, the authors interpret the major findings of the study, and explain their significance. They may compare the results of their study with work previously done by others, and indicate how their study sheds new light on the problem described in the Introduction.

The Discussion section should be read carefully, as sometimes your interpretation of the data will differ from that of the authors.The authors may speculate about the broader meaning of the results, and offer directions for future research. Finally, the authors will discuss any limitations to the study, as well as possible sources of bias.

In the article by Warren, et al., what were three limitations mentioned in the Discussion section?